|Abstract (english)|| |
A wider context and the importance of the research are explained in the introductory part of this thesis with the aim to help understand why innovations in information communication technology (ICT) are not adopted quickly enough in Croatian construction industry. The subject of the research are the key factors for adopting innovation on the level of organisation in Croatian construction industry, whereas the purpose of the research is to enable better understanding of factors which influence the ability of the organisation to recognise outer innovative knowledge, to analyse, process and accept it in order to accelerate diffusion processes for adopting innovation within an organisation and the framework of Croatian construction organisations. Defining the aim of the research follows – to develop a unique methodological framework for assessing potential absorption capacities (PAC) of an organisation in the construction industry to adopt ICT innovation using building information modelling (BIM) as an example. Four research questions have been put and the steps of research work explained. The following hypotheses of the research have been introduced: H1: There is a connection between the organisation's environment factor, the existing and the new knowledge and the PAC of the organisation for the adoption of innovation and H2: PAC of the organisation for BIM adoption is positively linked with the level of innovativeness of the organisation. Further, the first hypothesis has been separated into three components: H1.1: Organisation's environment factors influence the PAC of the organisation for the adoption of innovation; H1.2.: The existing knowledge is positively linked with the PAC of the organisation for the adoption of innovation; H1.3: PAC of the organisation for the adoption of the innovation is linked with the perceived innovation features. A methodological approach to the research is presented.
In the second chapter called Compilation of Knowledge an overview of the most important theoretical and research concepts in the four main areas of knowledge into which this research delves is provided: the area of innovation, information and communication technology, construction, and theories and models for adopting technologies and innovations. This chapter explains the basic definition of innovation, describes how ICT contributes to innovation, as well as the importance of ICT innovation in construction projects. BIM is described in detail as one of the most significant innovations in construction, and a review of the levels and models for assessing the maturity of BIM implementation is given. Next is an overview of the models for adoption of technology: TRA, TPB, TAM, UTAUT and DeLone's and McLean's
models. Further on, the theory of diffusion of innovation and the concept of absorption capacity are explained. Why exactly these two theories have been chosen for the theoretical framework of this research is elaborated in the conclusion of the chapter.
The third chapter is called The conceptual model of diffusion of innovation. A unique conceptual model of diffusion of innovation in an organisation has been introduced to show that it is possible to develop DOI and ACap into a unique conceptual model of diffusion of innovation within an organisation through the analysis of the theory and the existing models, thus giving the answer to the first research question. The description of the defined constructs of this conceptual model is shown: the existing knowledge, the perceived innovation features, innovativeness of the organisation, organisation's environment and communication channels.
In the fourth chapter called The research I: The relationship of constructs of the conceptual model of acceptance of innovation the methods and the results of the conducted quantitative research are shown. The sample and the obtained data about the interviewees are described. Statistical data processing and hypothesis testing were developed in SPSS program. Data about the acquisition and assimilation capacity of the organization are analysed. Communication channels are analysed using a specific social network analysis with the help of bipartite weights graphs. Using nonparametric tests, statistical hypotheses are tested on the basis of which it is concluded that the following scientific hypotheses of this research can be accepted: H1.2. The existing knowledge is positively connected with PAC of the organisation for adoption of innovation and H2 PAC of the organisation for the adoption of BIM is positively connected with the level of organisation's innovativeness. The hypothesis on the interconnection between PAC of the organisation for the adoption of innovation and the perceived innovation features cannot be accepted. However, its modified version can be accepted, where PAC for the adoption of innovation on the personal level is connected with the perceived innovation features. The data about BIM in Croatia are compared with the data of similar researches conducted in Great Britain. The status of adopting BIM according to Gartner's Hype Cycle model is explained.
The fifth chapter, The research II: The connection of the environment of the organization and PAC of the organisation, refers to a detailed description of the methods and the results of the conducted research for the development of a measuring instrument – from creating the content of the measuring scale and the content validity rating, the development of the scale and the
assessment of the constructive validity of the scale to the final phase of testing the instrument by factor analysis. At the end of the chapter, the results are discussed: fifteen particles have been identified and classified into four groups of organisation environment factors which influence the PAC of the organisation for the acquisition and the assimilation of BIM as ICT innovations in construction industry. In the group (1), political and legal environment of the organization two particles were classified, in the group (2), specific sector environment of the organisation five particles, in (3), business environment of the organisation three particles and in group (4), the resources of the organisation five particles. Thus, the first hypothesis of this research was confirmed: H1.1: Factors of the organisation's environment influence PAC of the organisation to adopt innovation. It was shown how this measuring instrument can be applied to analyse organisation's influential environment factors in construction industry and to adopt other innovations, as well as to assess the importance of environment factors for adopting e-learning as an ICT innovation at universities.
The sixth chapter called Measuring instrument for the assessment of PAC of the organisation, shows the methodology for the development of a mathematical model for assessing the acquisition and assimilation readiness of the organization to adopt BIM. Variables are described in this model, they were given adequate weights through AHP method and the model in MS Excel format was introduced. The model was based on a real organisation in Croatian construction industry. The end of the chapter gives the main guidelines for rational use of the obtained results of the PAC assessment of the organization per given measuring instrument. Specifically, the result of the assessment procedure of the organisation's PAC according to the methodological model described gives the user the following basic information: the level of the capability of an organisation for the assimilation of BIM and the level of the potential absorption capacity of an organisation for the adoption of BIM, and the model itself can give an answer what to do to increase PAC.
The final, seventh chapter is Conclusion with reference to the fulfilment of the set goals in the research and getting answers to research questions. Basic results of the conducted research are described. Scientific contribution of this research is explained. It has been shown that it is possible to apply research methods and methods used in the researches of adopting innovations to the problem of adopting BIM and in order to address key challenges in construction industry, it is necessary to link ICT sector with construction sector more closely. A unique model of innovation diffusion within an organisation has been developed that
synergically links the theory of diffusion of innovation with the concept of absorption capacity, contributing to the development of the innovation diffusion theory and the concept of absorption capacity. The contribution of the results of the study of environmental impacts on the diffusion process lies in the application of thus defined main groups of influencing factors to the research of different types of innovation in various social and business environments. Furthermore, there is empirical evidence that the organisation's potential capabilities affect the organisation's innovative nature. A measuring instrument for estimating PAC of the organisation for the diffusion of BIM represents methodological contribution where various methods from different scientific and research areas have been applied. The social contribution of the research lies in the dissemination of BIM in Croatian construction industry and raising awareness of the need to strengthen organisation's PAC. The developed model for the evaluation of the organisation's PAC for the diffusion of BIM can be used for practical purposes. At the end of the chapter, the limitations of the research and recommendations for further research are listed.
A part of the quantitative research related to the development of a conceptual model for the adoption of innovation and the development of the scale for measuring environmental impact on the PAC of an organisation was conducted within the project „Development of a methodological framework for strategic decision making in higher education – an example of the implementation of open learning and distance learning – Higher Decision“ financed by the Croatian Foundation for Science, IP-2014-09-7854, in whose preparation and realisation the author of this thesis also participates.